Friday, August 13, 2010

I've worked on Family Tree all week

and still didn't make a post until today////......

Tuesday, August 10, 2010

Route of the Wilderness Road
Of Kentucky's 75,000 population in 1790, about 90% had arrived by way of the Wilderness Road.
The Cumberland Gap is about 510 highway miles from Washington D.C.

Located at the Virginia-Tennessee border, the little village of Cumberland Gap, TN, is about 25 miles farther west than the meridian of Detroit, Michigan. Today, Cumberland Gap National Historical Park  commemorates Daniel Boone and the surge of people who traveled westward after the Revolution.

Some suggest that the origin of the Wilderness Road was at Fort Chiswell (Ft. Chissel) on the Great Valley Road where roads converged from Philadelphia and Richmond.  Others claim the Wilderness Road actually began at Sapling Grove (now Bristol, VA) which lay at the extreme southern end of the Great Valley Road because it was at that point that the road narrowed, forcing travelers to abandon their wagons.  It moved through the Allegheny Mountains at Cumberland Gap, at what is now the junction of the State boundaries of
Kentucky, Tennessee and Virginia.

Heading northwest, it splits at Hazel Patch--with one route creating Boonesborough, the other Frankfort.
Today one can follow the main route from Bristol, VA to Middlesboro, KY, then to Pineville, Mt. Vernon, and on towards Lexington on Interstate 75.

Scots Migrated to Northern Ireland

Estimated that 200,000 Scots migrated to N. Ireland,  They were Lowlanders, mostly coming from the border regions of Galloway, Dumfries, Renfrewshire, Ayrshire, Argyllshire and Lanarkshire in the west and Edinburgh, the Lothians and Berwichshire in the east.  They spoke English and were Protestant, specifically Presbyterian.   In turn, some TWO MILLION of their descendants migrated to America during the 18th -- 19th -- and during the early part of the 20th centuries.   I have to remember that translates to the 1700's -- 1800's and early 1910-1920's.  From ULSTER: IRELAND< < the primary ports of US entry were Boston, MA  into New York, into Philadelphia PA and into Charleston NC. 

By 1776 -- the year of America's Independence -- almost half of Ulster had crossed the Atlantic Ocean.  About one -out-of-every-seven colonists was Scots-Irish.

How should we describe these immigrants?  In Boston, they tended to be intolerant, rough, unruly and poverty stricken... via not a welcomed group.   Thus, they moved South to Philly.  In about 1760 -- Ben Franklin estimated that 1/3 of Philly was ENGLISH -- 1/3 was GERMAN -- and 1/3 was Scots-Irish.

Next,  they moved West through the Cumberland gap -- thru Virginia -- thereby heading west towards Missouri, and southward thru Kentucky, Tennessee, North and South Carolina.
Initial migration to Missouri was made by Scotch-Irish who came through the Ohio Valley, and most of these earliest settlers claimed to come from Kentucky and Tennessee.  One such settler, Daniel Boone, is thought to have started the stream of migration from eastern Kentucky through the Cumberland Gap (KY) sometime in the years 1769 through 1771 (Rafferty, p.54). 

The gap, named for the Cumberland County in northern England, made way for two hundred and fifty thousand people, most of whom were Scotch-Irish.  Groups that traveled along the Ohio River from Pittsburgh were mostly comprised of Ulstermen, as well (Gerlach, p.16).  Other groups came from the Old Southwest, traveled up the Mississippi River valley, and entered both Arkansas and Missouri river systems that led them into the Ozarks.

They settled in the Southwestern frontier .. bearing the brunt of Indian hostilities, they were clannish, fierce, wore coonskin caps, carried Kentucky rifles and were really fond of whiskey!  The were hot tempered, fighters, great boasters, and compulsive storytellers.   They had a keen ear for a striking phrase.   Some of the Scots-Irish moved south into Texas -- the most notorious being Davy Crockett at the Alamo. 

The Scotch-Irish Hillbillies made stills and brewed "moonshine." They used words like a-huntin, a=fishin, afeared, hex, plum right, plum crazy, and coined the expression of you-all.  (Information cited: McCrum, Robert ~ The Story of English, Penguin books, 1986)

There is an old Appalachian saying: When English settlers arrived they built a house, the Germans built a barn, and the Scotch-Irish built a distillery

Wednesday, August 4, 2010

Scot-Irish Beginnings in the Sipuel family

Founding of Slavery 1600's

Excerpt from Article by Tavis Smiley // 
 . . . . . .This year marks the 400th anniversary of Jamestown, Virginia - the first permanent English settlement in North America and where the first Africans set foot in America. While the slave trade in the 1700s is well documented, recent historical discoveries have shed light on the first Africans who arrived a century earlier.
Known as the site of the John Smith-Pocahontas legend, Jamestown has otherwise been overshadowed by stories of Pilgrims seeking religious freedom in Massachusetts' Plymouth Colony.

But many of the foundations of modern America, such as free enterprise, representative government and cultural diversity, began in Jamestown. Those first cultures included English settlers, Powatan Indians and the first Africans to set foot in America.

Historians had believed that the first Africans came from the West Indies on a Dutch warship. Now, new research has shown that the first documented Africans came from Angola and were not immediately enslaved. The Portuguese slave ship on which they traveled was raided by British pirates and arrived in Jamestown in 1619, where the Africans were traded for provisions.

While the institution of slavery did not yet exist in Virginia, White indentured servants from England were already common. Some of the first Africans worked side-by-side with English servants, clearing land, cutting trees and building houses.

Although the Africans' status was uncertain early on, and they were treated in a variety of ways, "there were some Africans that moved from indentured servant status to being free," says Dr. Rex Ellis, Vice President of the Historic Area at Colonial Williamsburg. During their indentured servitude, they were obligated to work for a master for 5-7 years and learned carpentry, blacksmithing or other skills. After that time, they became free and were usually given "freedom dues," such as a plot of land and supplies.

One Black man who gained his freedom was Anthony Johnson. His story is one of the only ones known about the first Africans in America. Called "Antonio the negro" in the 1625 Virginia census, he was brought to Jamestown in 1621 and worked on a plantation for a wealthy White family. He married, had four children and eventually became free. To proclaim his freedom, he changed his name to Anthony Johnson, because most servants did not have last names or used their master's name. Johnson soon owned land, cattle and even indentured servants from Africa.

In 1640, the same year Johnson bought his first property, one Black and two White indentured servants ran away from a farmer in Jamestown. When they were captured, the White men had their servitude extended four years. But John Punch, the Black man, was ordered to serve his master for life. He became the first documented slave.

Starting with John Punch, indentured servitude gradually evolved to lifetime slavery. By 1662, several Virginia laws were enacted that recognized slavery. One statute said that children would be born bonded or free depending on their mother's status, which began the transformation to slavery as we know it today.

Treasuring My USA History

"Jamestown VA changed the world in many ways, but perhaps it shaped our nation most profoundly the day Africans arrived."--Tavis Smiley

Monday, August 2, 2010

1790 ~ The First Census USA

On August 2, 1790, Federal representatives fanned out across the original 13 states, tabulating information on American households, just as they have every 10 years since. The information was used to estimate taxes, assign congressional representation and generally make demographic sense of U.S. society.

The enumerators (census takers) counted 3,929,326 people (later revised to 3,929,214 by some counts), “excluding Indians not taxed.” Of those counted, nearly 700,000 were slaves.

In Maryland, Virginia and South Carolina, slaves outnumbered free white men. Vermont, population 85,539, reportedly contained 16 slaves, a number later corrected to zero.

New York and Philadelphia were the new nation’s big cities, with 33,000 and 28,000 inhabitants respectively.

A complete set of the schedules for each state, with a summary for the counties, and in many cases for towns, was filed in the State Department, but unfortunately they are not now complete, the returns for the states of Delaware, Georgia, Kentucky, New Jersey, Tennessee, and Virginia having been destroyed when the British burned the Capitol at Washington during the War of 1812.

You can read more on the Census Department's web site at

Monday Madness and with Gladness

Family Scrap album.... starting to rearrange & reorganize again -- today! These are actually my adopted darlings.... via Calvin...uhhhh... Oh yea-- Wilson!!!