Tuesday, December 22, 2009



You know.... I've gotten to the point that just a picture.... is what lifts my spirits

Merry Christmas 2009

Wednesday, December 9, 2009

Rural Communities in Chicot County AR

...Arkansas, where he purchased land.  This became know as the Anderson Plantation.  On the banks of ... her home.   Sometme later, Captain Anderson was married to a Mrs......purchased the Bellaire  or Anderson plantation....   http://www.seark.net/sabra/rural.hmtl/

SLAVERY IN ARKANSAS

The first slaves entered what was to become Arkansas in about 1720, when settlers moved into the John Law colony on land given to them on the lower Arkansas River by the king of  France.  The Law colony failed within two years, but a small number of inhabitants, including African Americans who probably were slaves.... remained in the area for the rest of the French and Spanish territorial periods.

In the first official US census of Arkansas as the "District of Lousiana".. in 1810,the census takers found 136 slaves in the total population of 874 persons.  The development of this area and its creation as Arkansas Terriroty in 1819 --- spurred a rapid growth in the slave population. 

By the end of 1820, it had almost doubled to 1617.  These trends continued thru the territorial period and up to the Civi War.  By 1830 -- the slave populationreached 4576; then 19935 in 1840;  7100 in 1850; and 111,115 in 1860. 

As the slave population grew, it also constituted a larger and larger portion of the total population, growing from eleven percent in 1820 to twenty -five percent by 1860.

Slaves lived in every county and in both rural and urban settings in antebellum AR.   historian Orville Taylor estimated that roughly one in four white Arkansans either owned slaves or lived in families that did.  many more probably benefited from slavery, however, as leasing slaves was not an uncommon practice.  Although slavery clearly touched the lives of many white Arkansans, most slave owners possessed only a few slaves.   The largest number of slaves were the property of the owners of large plantations in the state's lowlands, -- particularly in the rich valley and delta lands along the state's waterways.   A relatively large slave holding would have been ten slaves, a workforce valued at about $9000 on the average in 1859 -- and amount equal to approximately to $200,000 in 2002. 

By 1860, seventy-three percent of slaves were on plantations and farms of that size.  They were owned, however by only about 26% of the state's slave owners.  Elisha Worthington of Chicot County was the state's largest slave owner, holding more than 500 slaves on the eve of the Civil War.

My Mother's bio of Big mama




Thursday, November 19, 2009

Thought about it all day.... yesterday!

James Travis Huggins   ~ ~ ~ 59 yrs YOUNG  11-18-1950 bday!!

Friday, November 13, 2009

1938 T B Sipuel


in Oklahoma City Telephone Directory (December 1938)

Sipuel, T B
1022 NE 2  
ph 7-3705

Thursday, November 12, 2009

Today, the red poppy still serves as a symbol of the Armistice that ended the war on the 11th hour of the 11th day of the 11th month. Today, in the United States, we celebrate Veterans Day on November 11th. All over the world, countries that have lost soldiers in various conflicts around the globe remember their sacrifices on Veterans Day. In the United States, the most prevalent symbol of Veterans Day are the stars and stripes of the American Flag. Around the world, particularly in the British Commonwealth, the red poppy is still the most frequently employed symbol of remembrance.



In Flanders fields the poppies blow. . . So begins the poem written by Canadian Physician John McCrae, describing the 1915 World War I battlefield in the Ypres salient. Corn poppies, so named because they grow wild as a weed in fields of grain, cover the battlefields of Europe where soldiers from around the world–including Canada, Germany, France, Great Britain, Belgium, Australia, Italy, Japan, Russia and the United States– fell during World War I.


Soldiers returning home from the war told stories of the wild red poppies growing in otherwise barren fields. Many of the battlefields became the final resting place of the soldiers that died there, and the red poppies became a symbol of the war, and of the veterans that had given their lives for the cause. The red of the poppies symbolized, in the minds of many, the blood of the fallen soldiers



Happy Veterans Day -- yesterday...

Flags were at half-mast for Ft. Hood, TX loss of soldiers!  Thought I'd list all Veterans in my family history Line..... kinda in WAR ORDER.....


James D. Morgan, James Bunny Morgan Jr., Lemuel Sipuel, Warren Fisher, James Travis Huggins, Orvile T. Huggins, Jerome Factory, Anthony L. Kirk, Kandaace R. Kirk, Billie Joyce (Kirk) Mallett,




GEESH.,..... one of the starting points is Old man -- Capn James Anderson, Civil War Confederate Soldier.  aka Great Grandfather, slaveowner of Lucinda Smith (my grandmother).

Seh's A Champ!

11-9-09 was outpatient surgery for Helen Huggins, (MAMA) the second removal of kidney stones........   Doing Well

Monday, November 2, 2009

What a delight.....

Misery Loves Company!

Tana said that she has a letter... that mama wrote on her old typewriter... with white-out paste-over errors...
It was a one page obit for Big Mama's funeral March 17-1971.  ....said hearing mama's voice and style was something else to envision...  

But the very content stunned me!...... Big Mama attended a Baptist Church (college background...??) and when she converted to COGIC.... her family disowned her... wanting nothing to do with that holiness message of early 1900! 

Well, she only had Lucinda - her mother with her during the time in AR that she met and married T.B. Sipuel.      

History repeated itself as I was raised Holiness... and married Lawrence and I have spent the rest of my days (my kids) in the Baptist church! 

more later.... that's another story!

Wednesday, October 28, 2009

Daily Talk

I had Sunday Dinner with mama at St. Anns:  she said they wanted to take her back to the hospital (Mercy) about her kidneys on Monday???     She then said "I don't need to keep going.... keep on and they're gonna find cancer....)

Since the charge nurse had not called me nor Tana (who visited last Friday....) we called on Monday AM...    As life would have it....Marla was nice...but hee-hawed around.. not knowing, then finding notes... but not knowing the origination..>>>????

We Huggins... u know we want sensible answers....(smile)    Call back said that Dr Heirly, the surgeon of original kidney stone removal... had a 30-followup September 30... His office called St. Anns to schedule one more ROUTINE ULTRASOUND of Kidneys on Oct 29 -- Thursday.   Transportation arranged.


OK  so this we can go with.  

Friday, October 9, 2009

Just to note the variation of hand stitched quilt......
(Picture take in Feb-2007)   . . .  sometimes the blue shirting is in the top of basket, other times in bottom....The base of the basket has different half square triangles in place....

Big Mama's Quilt. . . .




The pictures speak to my heart..... I'll write one-day. . . .



Friday, September 25, 2009

1994 Smith Family Reunion -Memphis TN

Smith Family Newsletter   Winter Edition 1994

Remarks: Dear Cousin:

The time has come for us to start planning our 2nd Annual family reunion for 1994. Remember, you guys voted to have it in July 1994 in Chicago. Those of us who were blessed to have felt the power of kinship love in 1992, know how great it was. "Wasn't it great!" You felt a kind of PRIDE to be in fellowship with Lucinda's Tree. We met cousins with PHS and no D's. They came from Arkansas, Tennessee, Illinois, Minnesota, Oklahoma, Missouri and Michigan. ALl ages; 10 strong.

About Lucinda's Tree, folks we realize we can never repay Lucinda and we can only imagine the sacrifice she must have made to survive slavery. Cousin Ada Lois, lawy professor, retired, and our guest speaker gave us some enlightening history regarding the practice of chattel slavery, including the bit abot Lucinda having to name her children Smith when they were Andersons for fear of Captain Anderson, and his wife.

Remember, Lucinda was the slave master's cook, and a single parent of seven. She must have worked long hours preparing food for his family in addition to her own. A hard worker, our hero. What strength can we learn from her: Together, we will explore the strengths that brought her through and teach our children.

"Fruit does not fall too far from the tree," a reflection of her strength may be seen by looking at her fruit.
A "Someone you should know" person may reflect something of Lucinda. They are our family heroes and our role models. Who are they? We will learn who they are and of their accomplishment so we can educate, motivate, and show our children there is a bleak of hope, even in hard times, they made it... so can we.

You may submit a biography, autobiography, or write an essay or commentary about a "Someone you should know" family member.

Regarding out 1992 celebration, your responses have been "great". We are glad you enjoyed it. Again, we can thank our 1992 Lucinda Family Reunion staff and all others for a job well done. Though we cannot name all those who played a part in the preparation for this celebration being a success. Eleanor Taylor @ 179 North Lombard, Oak Park IL 60302 phone 708-524-8533 (secretary) Melvin Davis (coordinator and Vivian White (treasurer)

Obituary:
Leona Dial 12-10-1912 - 11-30-1992

Clarence Richardson 06-02-1900 - 09-20-1993

Wednesday, September 23, 2009

Burr Oak Cemetery HEADSTONE DATABASE (Alsip, IL)

Updated 1Aug 2009    Click to visit site (CVS download is alphabetical by first name?)


Burr Oak Online   http://burroak.net/


The Cook County (IL) sheriff's department is building a database for Burr Oak Cemetery. This is not all inclusive and suggests you check back from time to time.

"Burr Oak has about 100,000 grave sites, but only half have marked headstones. County officials have documented all 50,000 headstones and they all should be entered into the database over the next several days. So far, the database features about 9,500 sites."

The Cook County Clerk’s Office’s Bureau of Vital Statistics maintains death records and will provide a copy upon request to relatives.(@15)  Please visit their web site www.cookctyclerk.com or call 312-603-5656 for additional information. You can also check with the funeral home that conducted the services for your deceased family members.

Friday, September 11, 2009

Mama Dearest -- in the World ! ! !


Aging is having its physical effects.... Look who's is watching over her...... The Lord- Strong & Mighty!

Helen Sipuel Huggins had surgery 8-30-09

Tana visited with her Dr.... who saw her at Mercy from a distance. Asked about mother... Urosepsis (Any doubt I Love Learning Medicine!) see below. . . . .

Pyelonephritis is an ascending urinary tract infection that has reached the pyelum (pelvis) of the kidney (nephros in Greek). If the infection is severe, the term "urosepsis" is used interchangeably - - - - sepsis being a systemic inflammatory response syndrome due to infection aka SIRS is recognized as the first event in a cascade to multi-organ failure. Mortality is considerably increased when severe sepsis or septic shock are present, though the prognosis of urosepsis is globally better than sepsis due to other infectious sites.

/uro·sep·sis/ (u″ro-sep´sis) Urosepsis accounts for approximately 25% of all sepsis cases and may develop from a community or nosocomial acquired urinary tract infection

It requires antibiotics as therapy, and treatment of any underlying causes to prevent recurrence. It is a form of nephritis

SYMPTOMS: dysuria (painful voiding of urine), abdominal pain (radiating to the back on the affected side) and tenderness of the bladder area and the side of the involved kidney

CAUSES: Most cases of "community-acquired" pyelonephritis are due to bowel organisms that enter the urinary tract. Common organisms are E. coli (70-80%) and Enterococcus faecalis. Hospital-acquired infections may be due to coliforms and enterococci, as well as other organisms uncommon in the community (e.g. Klebsiella spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa).

Most cases of pyelonephritis start off as lower urinary tract infections, mainly cystitis and prostatitis.

TREATMENT: All acute cases with spiking fevers and leukocytosis should be admitted to the hospital for IV fluids hydration and IV antibiotic treatment immediately. ciprofloxacin IV 400mg every 12 hours is the first line treatment of choice. Alternatively, ampicillin IV 2g every 6 hours plus gentamicin IV 1mg/kg every 8 hours also provide excellent coverage.

If the patient is unwell and septic, intravenous fluids may be administered to compensate for the reduced oral intake, insensible losses (due to the raised temperature) and vasodilation and to maximize urine output.

Friday, September 4, 2009

Ancestors I Have Met

I'm making use of... and following the path of other posts: This week’s Genealogy Fun from Randy Seaver of Genea-Musings:

1) Write down which of your ancestors that you have met in person (yes, even if you were too young to remember them).

2) Tell us their names, where they lived, and their relationship to you in a blog post. . .

My paternal grandmother, Pearlie (Travis) Morgan Huggins (10 June 1900 - 27 Feb 1968). Her first granddaughter called her Mama Dooley... so the name stuck. She was born probably born in Lexington, Holmes Cty, MS; she died in a hospital in Chicago, Cook Cty, IL.

My maternal grandmother, Martha Bell (Smith) Sipuel Caver (09 Jan 1885 - 17 Mar 1971) , I believe she was born in Halley or Dermott, Chicot Cty, AR. She died of hip cancer in Oklahoma City, OK Cty, OK. She owned her home and property in Chickasha, Grady Cty, OK for many years.

Wednesday, September 2, 2009

Black Madonna


Two more days pass 9-1-09 back @ St Ann's


which mama calls home..... "I know Mary is waiting for me".
Well, well, well... Google it and find it! this was called the real 'Sister Act': Black nuns in America
By Anthony Calypso
8:25 AM on 08/26/2009


Sister Loretta Theresa on the steps of The Franciscan Handmaids of the Most Pure Heart of Mary in Harlem, NY (Photo courtesy: Ceci Marquette)
Click this link the The Grio

Monday, August 31, 2009

Two days later-- 8-26-09 -- Mercy Hospital


admitted with UTI, serious loss on cognition! Surgical procedure Sunday 7:15 am by urologist.... Ok mama...... Thank You Good Lord... for your blessings... and my family.
A Bright Bloomin Flower for today!

Monday, August 24, 2009

Had a KFC Lunch with Mama Saturday!

Lots of humor in this story... chatted with Wendell Sunday Night.... Rashaad Dee-Kali-Amy all doing well.

1825-2005 = 180+ Years of Family History

Six Generations from GGGparents to Jalen Anthony Kirk and Anayah Jordyn Shabazz. My Line, My heritage.

Sipuel's Family Found on 1880 Census

Wednesday, August 12, 2009

Mother Coffey was keenly interested... Tugbake




in Mission work in Africa and Haiti. ..... COGIC Missionaries stationed in Liberia at Tugbake Station was particularly satisfying... "I have begun the effort of supplying refrigerators for our Foreign Fields and she (Sister E. Collins) so gladly took up this task for me" Coffey wrote.

"On August 1, the contract was completed for the shipment of two refrigerators (operated by kerosene) to be shipped to Africa.... Mother Collins is now in the jungle soliciting for two dynamos (missionaries) that we might light up the jungles.... Oh what a happy day when the light be so bright on our various stations campuses that the wild animals dare not approach or harm our missionaries."

taken from Women in the Church of God in Christ by Anthea D. Butler


From this writing, I'd set the time frame of this missionary work/trip as being prior to 1950...
notably, Mother Coffee set up the COGIC Women's Convention (week-long) which was hosted by Bishop Samuel Crouch and his wife 04-24-1951 at Emmanuel Temple COGIC (Los Angeles, CA) Pretty high profile stuff.... she was photographed with California Govenor -- Earl Warren --the future Supereme Court Justice -- and his wife/


Gosh, now I'm learning even more vividly....


The keynote speaker was given by Dr. M. Bethune...their picture featured in the Sentinel --- at the convention... she arranged for women to March In! carry banners to accentuate the focus on missionary activities... she presented Bishop Crouch with $10,000 in cash in a paper bag as a donation from Women's Department for missions to COGIC.....


The plainly dressed women who rigorously studied the Bible, and rejected the trappings of the world had been replaced --- by fashionable, educated, and civically oriented women....

Tugbake Dining Hall




On this COGIC bullentin board.....
So now I know it had to do with a COGIC Missionary project into Liberia - Africa, County of Maryland..... town of TUGBAKE.




I can always learn something new.... via the Internet




TUGBAKE, Maryland County is a county in the southeastern portion of the West African nation of Liberia.






One of 15 counties that comprise the first-level of administrative division in the nation, it has two districts. Harper serves as the capital with the area of the county measuring 2,297 square kilometres (887 sq mi).[1] As of the 2008 Census, it had a population of 136,404, making it the seventh most populous county in Liberia.[1]





Named after the State of Maryland in the United States, it joined Liberia in 1857. The most populous city in the county is Pleebo with 22,963 residents

National Steering Committee


L-R: Anna Crockett Ford, Supervisor J.V. Hearne, Supervisor Mary Davis, Annie Bailey, Supervisor J.E. McFarland, Supervisor Jennie L. Hunter
Standing: Bishop W. E. Jefferies, Mother B. M. Lang

Monday, August 10, 2009

Mother Bailey & The Board of Seven. . . . COGIC Leaders??









Dr. Annie L. Bailey, National Supervisor COGIC, President Women's International Convention (Served 1964-1975)

Six names (Bishops) were pasted: Wyoming Wells, A.B. McEwen (Chairman Emeritus), J. Bailey, O.M.Kelly, J.O. Patterson (secretary) L. H. Ford


Second photograph is T.B. Sipuel (Oklahoma 1944-1946), ev. Carl Prather, Rev. John Goodman, Rev. Jone Kemp.




Right Up Under My Nose...... Rather


On a wall in my garage. . . there has been hanging for YEARRRRRRssss.. a COGIC poster hung by my daddy - Howard Huggins!
So, hubby pulls it down... I've taken the notes, recording each individual in the photos, several poems, and the 1919 Annual Convocation speech by C. M. Mason! The two great men of my heart are photographed... Bishop T. B. Sipuel and Eld. Howard Huggins
I visited Grandmother Huggins at St. Ann's Nursing Home yesterday evening.... she immediately said that Brent Butler gave this posterboard to your daddy... His mother made it. He didn't want to throw it away... and figured daddy would keep it.
This must have been in the mid-70's.....I notices in the 1987 St. John Church directory - a picture of Rev. Brent & Toni Butler worshipping there for a short time after they left Madison Street COGIC. Mama said he was now living in the Dallas TX area.
Another good instance of my mother's ability to recall and discuss. Just luvin every day she is alive and well and with us!

Thursday, August 6, 2009

Dermott Township, Chicot County, AR

Arkansas was admitted to the Union as a slave state on June 15, 1836

Chicot County is located in Southeast Arkansas and is bordered by the following counties: Desha County, Arkansas * Drew County, Arkansas * Ashley County, Arkansas * East Carroll Parish, Louisiana * West Carroll Parish, Louisiana * and Washington County, Mississippi


The village along the tracks contained a rail station, a general merchandise store, a cotton gin, and a saloon. Before 1883, the first mercantile business was Morris & Kimpel, but, in the 1880s, more such stores, along with drug and grocery stores, were established. The town incorporated on August 20, 1890, with J. Tom Crenshaw as mayor. Agriculture was the main economic enterprise. In 1891, 2,500 bales of cotton were exported.

The first public school in Dermott was built for black children during Reconstruction. It was replaced by a state school known as Chicot County High School. In 1899, a boarding school, the Southeast Baptist Academy, opened. It evolved into Morris Booker Memorial High School and College by 1934. Under the leadership of Dr. York Williams, an alumnus who arrived in 1957, the school emerged into a first-rate academic institution. Students began leaving for integrated schools in the 1970s, and the academy eventually closed.

African-American families worked primarily in the agriculture and timber industries, but, as early as 1887, the town had several black doctors. According to an 1899 news article, prominent black citizens owned many businesses downtown.

Good facts running thru my mind! PLUS

FOR thirty years - I guess- that long ago.... my daddy hung a great big poster inside the Woodridge garage. About 40" x 60".... attesting to "...this is the Church of God in Christ!" I can hear the old song....."you cannot join in.... you have to be born in.... this is the Church of God in Christ!"

Quite a treasure.... I hopin it is still legible and not worn as the paper pictures are posted onto it. Where he got it from... I don't know. But I can see why I'm having this thirst to connect to those who have gone on before.

Anxious to get home and photograph the poster tonite. Really thinking of a way to scan and further preserve quite a few old papers daddy has on COGIC.

http://americanhistory.pppst.com/cottongin.html

Monday, August 3, 2009


Faulkner County was formed April 12, 1873 from Conway and Pulaski Counties. Conway is the county seat. It was named for Colonel Sanford C. "Sandy" Faulkner, composer of the fiddle tune, "The Arkansas Traveller."

Faulkner County courthouse is located at 801 Locust St., Conway, AR 72034-5330. Phone: 501-450-4910.

Cities and Towns in the county include: Conway--Damascus--Enola--Greenbrier--Guy--Holland--Mayflower--Mt. Vernon--Quitman--Twin Groves--Vilonia--Wooster

Wednesday, July 29, 2009

Her 83rd Birthday was Wonderful ! 07-25-2009

My Mama is a Mess...... Yippee ! !


She has sweet-talked an able-bodied young man into being her part-time chauffeur! Ya know, the Parker grandson -- Rodney. Rodney who.. Rodney Wright.

Here's the phone call 11am - Tuesday: "Beva, I want to go to Walmart. Rodney is goin to take me. when, what time, who? Rodney Wright, the Parker boy from Madison Church. At 1:00pm.. today. I've got money....... do u need me to go? or bring u some more money? No, I just want to get out of this place for a while!"

Ok- bye. I call Tana, she double checks. We tell the Nursing aide to put Rodney Wright on the approved list to take mama out.... what else can we say.

Ok -- so by 3-4 pm: Rodney tells Tana that "Oh she had a good time, no- no money to pay me back.... Oh, she wanted some Chic-filet." Then we joked... oh to see Mama eat in your car is a mess..... like she's never had a meal before.... Rodney said..yeah--well---... Tana said he likes to visit and adopts Helen whenever he misses his own grandmother..... How sweet!

So, I'm thankful once again, for Mama being as well as she is. Thank u Lord for each day.

Tuesday, July 28, 2009

Bury Me In A Free Land



MAKE me a grave where'er you will,
In a lowly plain, or a lofty hill;
Make it among earth's humblest graves,
But not in a land where men are slaves.



I could not rest if around my grave
I heard the steps of a trembling slave;
His shadow above my silent tomb
Would make it a place of fearful gloom.

I could not rest if I heard the tread
Of a coffle gang to the shambles led,
And the mother's shriek of wild despair
Rise like a curse on the trembling air.

I could not sleep if I saw the lash
Drinking her blood at each fearful gash,
And I saw her babes torn from her breast,
Like trembling doves from their parent nest.

I'd shudder and start if I heard the bay
Of bloodhounds seizing their human prey,
And I heard the captive plead in vain
As they bound afresh his galling chain.

If I saw young girls from their mother's arms
Bartered and sold for their youthful charms,
My eye would flash with a mournful flame,
My death-paled cheek grow red with shame.

I would sleep, dear friends, where bloated might
Can rob no man of his dearest right;
My rest shall be calm in any grave
Where none can call his brother a slave.

I ask no monument, proud and high,
To arrest the gaze of the passers-by;
All that my yearning spirit craves,
Is bury me not in a land of slaves.

Frances E. W. Harper

Friday, July 24, 2009

Dad Sipuels' Personal Experience and

background is reflected in COGIC dogma ..... Much like Mason -- our religious experience has sought to reached out and lift up Black Americans primarily in the 19020's from a rural setting -- exhorting them to seek an escape from the Jim Crow South and migrate/move Northward to seek a better way a life, although the 40's-50's and 60's presented harsh realities of urban life.

The primary thinking of the sanctified church has been "If you got individual souls saved, it would lead to transformation of the larger society"

A motto is oft repeated..." AChild Saved.... is a soul saved." (plus a life)!

"The COGIC is possibly the prime example of the self-help tradition in America," says general board member Ithiel Clemmons. "It is a people that started as the children of slaves—sharecroppers, farmers, oppressed people. They asked no one for anything. They migrated to the major cities of America and became successful. They felt that the experience of the baptism of the Holy Ghost took the apostrophe and the t from the word can't, so they could say, 'We can do all things through Christ who strengthens us.' "

I Thessalonians 2:14 COGIC


(1897) “Church of God in Christ” was revealed to Bishop C. H. Mason, Little Rock, Arkansas.

COGIC (pronounced COE-jik) is an acronym for Church of God in Christ, the largest Pentecostal, and second-largest African-American church denomination in the United States. But more than being an abbreviation, COGIC has become a word of embodiment. http://www.pctii.org/cyberj/cyberj9/millner.html (except portion)


Akin to NAACP or GOP, COGIC conjures up images of the expressive and emotionally intense, hand clapping, foot stomping, tongues speaking, bible toting, joyous singing, body healing, Jesus professing, God fearing, Spirit indwelling experience of a group of black religious folk, collectively known as the sanctified church.


Scripture basis:
“For ye brethren became followers of the Churches of God which in Judea are in Christ Jesus: for ye have suffered like things of your own countrymen even as they have of the Jews.”

Family motto: T. B. Sipuel

Dad Sipuel lived his life under the inspiration of Micah 6:8

"He hath shewed thee, 0 man, what is good,‑ and what doth the Lord require of thee, but to do justly, and to love mercy, and to walk humbly with thy God?"

Recording My COGIC History - A Timeline







My husband, two daughters and my brother Wendell made a family trip to Lexington MS in June 2008: photos of the First-Historic COGIC.



In their book The Black Church in the African American Experience (Durham: Duke University Press, 1990), C. Eric Lincoln and Lawrence Mamiya wrote that because the Church of God in Christ was the only incorporated Pentecostal denomination in existence from 1907 to 1914 - - - - - it was the sole ecclesiastical authority which could ordain ministers.

By 1914, the realities of segregation caused white Pentecostal ministers ordained by Mason to organize the Assemblies of God.

By 1924, most white constituents of remaining interracial churches withdrew to form their own churches, leaving little contact between black and white Pentecostals.